FICUS XYLOPHYLLA  Wall. ex Miq (1867)  SECTION:CONOSYCEAE

Greek: Refers to the thick “woody leaves”.

Habits: Large strangler to 30m locally common in areas of poor soils and peat swamp forest. Closely related to F. crassiramea and F. stupenda Berg (2005).

Sex: Monoecious.

Large leaf averaging 13-25cm (but up to 35cm long by 6-13cm wide with 6-8 pairs of side veins. The apex of the leaf is rounded with no or a very slight drip tip.

Large oblong figs: 3-4cm in diameter and up to 5cm long grow in pairs in the leaf axils at the ends of the branches. Figs ripen green to orange to bright red. The basal bracts are cauducuous and fall early from the fig.

Similar species: F. crassiramea and F.stupenda.

Distinguish: From both by the rounded leaf with no drip tip and the oblong figs without basal bracts. The leaf is significantly thicker and more solid than other Bornean figs.

Distribution: Locally common in lowland forests with areas of peatswamp and poor sandy kerangas soils. A common fig of the peat-swamp forests of Brunei and Sarawak.

Sabah: Uncommon. Tanjong FR (Tawau), Lungmanis (Sandakan), Nabawan kerangas forest. According to Kitayama’s vegetation survey of Pulau Tiga on the west coast of Sabah, Ficus xylophylla is the most common fig on the island.

Brunei: Berakas FR, Sg Liang Arboretum. Ulu Belalong.

Sarawak: At Lambir the third most common strangler in the 52 ha plot with 19 individuals (Harrison 2005).  Common around Kuching especially coastal forest including Bako, Sematan and Tg Datu. In his 1963 article on the flora of Sarawak’s peat swamp forest Anderson described F. xylophylla as abundant on Pulau Bruit but rare elsewhere.

Kalimantan: At Gng Palung ranges from peat swamp through all habitats to montane forest; most abundant in peat swamp and submontane forest (Laman & Weiblen 1998).

Range: S. Thailand south to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.

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