A sapling Ficus tinctoria  var gibbosa in it’s natural habitat, limestone cliffs at Mulu in Sarawak. Once a relatively rare fig only locally common on cliffs in forested areas  F. tinctoria var gibbosa is now the most common fig in towns such as Kota Kinabalu and Kuching growing on concrete walls and buildings.

Ficus tinctoria var gibbosa growing on a stone wall at Bukit Perwira in Kota Kinabalu
Ficus tinctoria gibbosa growth habits Sabah Muzium KK IMG_2035
Ficus tinctoria var gibbosa  growing on a concrete wall at the Sabah Muzium in Kota Kinabalu. Note that the fig plant has established a foothold in a small hole in the concrete and has dropped down a long aerial root.
Two Ficus tinctoria var gibbosa saplings established on a concrete shop building in Kota Kinabalu, where the main dispersers are Glossy Starlings.
02 Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis  t3P7A1358.JPG
Asian Glossy Starlings Aplonis panayensis are the most obvious dispersers of Ficus tinctoria var gibbosa in towns but how do the  seeds get lodged in tiny cracks in concrete walls. The most likely explanation is that they are taken there (secondary dispersal)  by foraging ants.