All photos by Shuai LIAO  taken on 7 September 2019 near Kg Nalamud in secondary forest in the eastern foothills of Kinabalu, Ranau district, Sabah. Collection #20190353.

Some of the ripe figs have been parasitised by NPFW (non-pollinating fig wasps), however the parasatized figs have also managed to produce  some viable seeds. See photos below.

Ficus gul is only found in eastern Borneo and based on the range map probably evolved in New Guinea and arrived in Borneo from the east i.e. Ficus gul crossed Wallace’s Line east to west. The most likely dispersers  are fruit bats particularly large Flying Foxes.

07 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640

Malaysia, Sabah, Ranau, Kg. Nalumad●20190353★Photographed By Shuai LIAO-LSL_8842.JPG

02 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640.JPG

03 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640.JPG

Ficus gul, Ranau, Kg. Nalumad●20190353★Shuai LIAO-LSL_0648.JPG

GREEN ARROWS: Ripe seeds,  indicating a female fig

ORANGE ARROWS:  Entrance tunnels drilled by parasitic non pollinating fig wasps so that they could use their ovipositor (egg laying tube) to lay eggs inside the developing seeds.

BLUE ARROW: Immature larvae of parasitic fig wasp.

BLACK AREAS: Dead parasitic fig wasps.

05 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640.JPG

04 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640.JPG

10 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640

11 Ficus gul Kg. Nalumad●20190353★ Shuai LIAO-LSL_0640.JPG