The map above shows the Malesian Botanical Region which according to Berg & Corner (2005) hosts the world’s richest assemblage of fig species per unit area with approximately 367 species out of a world total of c. 750 species.
The Malesian Botanical Region can be divided into 3 distinct regional sub-floras (1) Sundaland including Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Bali and the Malay Peninsula (2) The Philippines excluding Palawan and (3) Sulawesi and Wallacea east to New Guinea.
This Figs of Borneo Website describes the c. 150 species of figs found within The Borneo Province i.e. the area shown within the yellow line in the map above. The Borneo Province includes the whole of the island of Borneo and some of the surrounding islands including Maratua to the east of Borneo and the Natuna Islands to the west of Borneo.
Sundaland: Until approx. 10,000 years ago Borneo was joined by land to the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali. Thus it is not surprising that Borneo shares many fig species with Sumatra, Java and the Malay Peninsula.
However some fig species have arrived in Borneo either from the Philippines or from Sulawesi i.e. they have crossed Wallace’s Line over the sea, east to west. These Wallacean figs include Ficus forstenii, Ficus lawesii, Ficus concinna, Ficus glandifera, Ficus septica, Ficus gul, Ficus minahassae, Ficus melinocarpa and Ficus cumingii.
Changes in Bornean Fig Taxonomy since the Publication of Berg & Corner (2005).
Listed below are changes to Berg & Corner (2005) on The Figs of Borneo website. https://borneoficus.info/ Last updated 02 June 2018 by Quentin Phillipps.
Page refs refer to Berg & Corner (2005).
Pg. 109: Ficus glandulifera is split to create a new species F. lumutana. Berg (2008) New species F. lumunata
Pg.250: Ficus sandanakana is sunk into F. inaequipetiolata Pg: 133. Ficus sandanakana is sunk into Ficus inaequipetiolata
Pg.281: Name change from Ficus obscura to Ficus scaberrima following Berg & Pattharahirantricin (2011) Flora of Thailand, Moraceae. Ficus scaberrima: Introduction
Pg.347: Ficus variegata has been moved from Section Neomorph (now obsolete) into Section Sycomorus which now includes 3 Borneo species instead of 2, following Ronsted et al (2008). Ronsted et al (2008) Reconstructing the Phylogeny of Ficus
Pg: 397 Ficus temburongensis. A new Bornean endemic fig collected at Selapon in Temburong, Brunei by Coode et al. The closest relative is F. albomaculata. See Berg (2012). Berg (2012) Ficus Temburongensis BLUM2012057002011
Pg 450: Ficus schwarzii is split into 3 species, 2 of which occur in Borneo (1) F. rosulata and (2) F. kalimantana. Berg (2008) Redefinition of F. schwarzii and two new species of Ficus
Pg.461: Ficus uncinata is split to create 2 additional species Ficus malayana and Ficus bukitrayansis. Berg (2007) A study on the taxonomy of some stoloniferous species of Ficus
Pg.622: Ficus palungensis is listed as a valid species not as a synonym of F. acamptophylla. Ficus palungensis: TYPE Collection
Pg.647: Ficus stupenda is listed as a valid species not as a sub-species of F. crassiramea. Ficus stupenda: Introduction
Pg.691: Ficus elastica is removed from Section Malvanthera and included in Section Conosycea. Section Stilpnophyllum becomes redundant. Ronsted (2008) Phylogeny of Ficus section Malvanthera
Pg.695: Following the discovery of F. glandifera in the Derawan Islands of East Kalimantan this fig (the only Bornean fig in Section Malvanthera) is added to the Borneo list. Ficus glandifera: Introduction