(PHOTO ABOVE) A fruiting Ficus punctata liana growing on a Dipterocarp tree by the side of the access road to the Maliau Study Centre in central Sabah.
Photo by Miyabi Nakabayashi
THIS SITE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO ALL THE 150+ SPECIES OF FIGS that are found growing wild on the island of Borneo and their ecology. Along with New Guinea, Borneo hosts one of the world’s richest and most diverse fig floras. The figs of Borneo include tall trees, giant stranglers, small bushy epiphytes and 22 species of root climbing lianas that grow up from the ground high into the forest canopy.
The taxonomy used on this website is based on
Berg & Corner (2005) Flora Malesiana Moraceae- Ficus
BOTANISTS DIVIDE THE NATIVE BORNEO FIG SPECIES INTO 15 SECTIONS. In this overview we illustrate an example of a fig plant from each SECTION below. In addition we include two introduced ornamental figs and Ficus lyrata both native to West Africa in Section Galgolychia which are often planted in Borneo. Ficus natalensis
SECTION CONOSYCEA: Jejawi Fig. growing over the sea on Ficus microcarpa off the coast of East Kalimantan, Borneo. Notice the slender roots dangling above the waves. Pulau Kakaban Ficus microcarpa is one of 36 species of SECTION CONOSYCEA stranglers found in Borneo. Conosycea stranglers target a very wide range of dispersers including primary dispersers such as , birds , civets and fruit bats and secondary dispersers such as ants. primates
SECTION ERIOSYCEA: There are 20 species of SECTION ERIOSYCEA figs found in forest gaps and along roadsides throughout Borneo. They are mostly small trees with large hairy leaves and hairy figs. A high proportion are endemics found only in the hills. This photo shows 2 species F. endospermifolia (left) and F. eumorpha (right) growing together on the summit of Gunung Alab (1,964 m) in the Crocker Range, Sabah. The most likely dispersers of the two species illustrated above are civets, pigs and the which was once abundant in Borneo. Sumatran Rhinoceros
SECTION FICUS: Ficus deltoidea is one of only two SECTION FICUS species native to Borneo. Borneo. The second species is . Ficus oleifolia the edible fig is also in Section Ficus but does not occur wild in Borneo. Ficus carica Ficus deltoidea typically grows as a small epiphytic bush, here high in a canopy sky garden at the in Brunei. Belalong Canopy Walkway Ficus deltoidea is dispersed by flowerpeckers.
SECTION KALOSYCE: Ficus punctata is one of 14 species of SECTION KALOSYCE root climbing figs found in Borneo. Both the leaves and the adult figs are usually smooth without hairs-however young figs are often hairy. The figs are often larger than the small leaves which adhere tightly to and cover the surface of the host tree. Ficus punctata is dispersed by and primates civets.
SECTION OREOSYCEA: Ficus callosa is one of 5 Bornean fig trees in . All Oreosycea figs have tall straight white trunks with few branches, no hanging roots and relatively large leaves. Most species are rare, SECTION OREOSYCEA F. callosa is locally common on river floodplains in Sabah. This individual was growing next to the Tuaran River, near Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Ficus callosa is dispersed by and fruit bats civets.
SECTION RHIZOCLADUS: Ficus villosa is one of 14 SECTION RHIZOCLADUS fig species in Borneo. All SECTION RHIZOCLADUS figs are root climbers which branch and fruit only when they reach sunlight in the canopy. Both the large leaves and small figs are usually covered in dense hairs. Photo taken in the Princess of Wales Conservatory at , UK where this female Kew Gardens F. villosa liana fruits frequently. The figs are dispersed by birds, primates and civets.
SECTION SYCIDIUM: Ficus tinctoria var gibbosa is one of 26 SECTION SYCIDIUM figs in Borneo. Most sycidiums are common epiphytic shrubs of the forest understorey. Some may develop into small trees. The figs ripen red to orange and are very popular with small birds such as bulbuls and . starlings Ficus tinctoria var gibbosa grows on many trees and buildings around Kota Kinabalu in Sabah.
SECTION SYCOCARPUS (Earth Figs) These large leaves on a medium sized roadside bush or small tree are typical of the 8 species of SECTION SYCOCARPUS EARTH FIGS found in Borneo. To be certain that it is an “earth fig” check the base of the trunk for the long root like stolons which bear dark red figs covered in hooked bracts at ground level. The figs are dispersed by , pigs and deer and are predated by partridges and pheasants. rats
SECTION SYCOCARPUS (Cauliferous figs). This Ficus sattertwaitei is one of 17 species of SECTION SYCOCARPUS figs which are mostly small trees of the forest edge that bear large bunches of cauliferous figs on the trunk. The figs are dispersed by and small fruit bats. palm civets
SECTION SYCOMORUS: This is one of 3 species of SECTION SYCOMORUS in Borneo. Ficus racemosa F. racemosa is a common tree of riverbanks and floodplains throughout Borneo. The main dispersers are but the ripe figs are also eaten by fish bats, primates, and occasionally rhinoceros hornbills. The other two SECTION SYCOMORUS figs in Borneo, are civets is an introduced orchard fig occasionally cultivated in Borneo, and Ficus auriculata a common tall tree found both in secondary and virgin forests. Ficus variegata
This SECTION UROSTIGMA: Ficus caulocarpa growing at , Kota Kinabalu is one of 6 species of large stranglers in SECTION UROSTIGMA found in Borneo. Urostigma figs are identified by their distinctive leaves with a long leaf stalk and a hinge on the underside of the leaf at the joint between the leaf blade (lamina) and the leaf stalk (petiole). The small fig fruits are ramiflorus growing in dense clusters along the bare branches. and are mainly dispersed by small birds. Some of the Tg Aru beach are in SECTION UROSTIGMA. largest strangling fig trees in Borneo
SECTION: MALVANTHERA Malvanthera figs evolved in Australia and are widespread in eastern Indonesia and the Pacific Islands. Only one species reaches extreme eastern Borneo Ficus glandifera. The figs sit in cups like acorns which makes F. glandifera easy to recognize. So far F. glandifera has only been found on the remote islands of and Pulau Maratua part of the Derawan Islands off the coast of East Kalimantan. Pulau Sangkalaki,
SECTION: STILPNOPHYLLUM. Ficus elastica is the only Bornean fig species in Section: Stilpnophyllum. Ficus elastica originates in the Himalayas has never been recorded as growing wild in Borneo. All individuals so far recorded are sterile and have been propagated by cuttings, although they may occasionally produce seedless fig fruit. This individual was planted in Prince Philip Park, Tg Aru, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Ficus elastica is often grown as a house or office plant throughout the world, when it is called a Rubber Plant. ( The rubber trees grown in commercial plantations all over Borneo originated in the Brazilian Amazon and are not native to Borneo. Neither are they figs) Hevea brasiliensis . NOTE: Following DNA studies by Ronsted et al Ficus elastica has been allocated to Section Conosycea.
SECTION BOSCHERIA: is a common fig throughout the Philippines and in Northern Sulawesi but is a rare immigrant to Borneo with only a few records all from east Sabah in the forests surrounding Darvel Bay. Ficus minahasae
Ficus lyrata an ornamental fig which originated in West Africa is commonly planted in landscaping schemes in Borneo. The figs ripen large and green but are sterile. is one of only two species of figs in SECTION GALOGLYCHIA which can be found in Borneo. The other species is Ficus lyrata Ficus natalensis.